This area will cover relevant news of the threat to the planet from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) including concepts and designs for mitigation. All opinions are those of the author.

25 January 2011

Upcoming Book: "Incoming!: Or, Why we should stop worrying and learn to love the Meteorite"

Incoming!: Or, Why we should stop worrying and learn to love the Meteorite
Format: Kindle Edition
File Size: 2035 KB
Print Length: 288 pages
Publisher: Granta Books (January 1, 2011)
Sold by: Amazon Digital Services


Link: Telegraph Book Shop

Link: Article (The Guardian)

Link: Article (The Telegraph)

18 January 2011

Open Global Community NEO Workshop - Target NEO: Providing a Resilient NEO Accessibility Program for Human Exploration Beyond LEO (22 February 2011, Washington, D.C.)

From the conference website and flyer (with agenda)...

Open Global Community NEO Workshop
February 22, 2011, 8 am – 6:30pm
George Washington University
Jack Morton Auditorium
805 21 Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052

Target NEO: Providing a Resilient NEO Accessibility

Program for Human Exploration Beyond LEO

Workshop will address these questions:
Do we have adequate NEO targets for a robust, resilient, forward-looking but affordable human spaceflight program beyond LEO over the next two decades? What are the characteristics of a realistic human NEO target? Do we know enough today to proceed without a survey mission, and other precursors? Can we “afford” not to do a survey mission?

Workshop Forum and Outcome: The workshop will include, six (6) technical sessions and a broad introduction and closing session with confirmed expert-speakers. A (Q)uestion and (A)nswer period will be accommodated during each session. Following the workshop, a community expert-opinion based report will be delivered to major stakeholders for review and consideration. A request has been submitted to accommodate an initial oral report at the March 2011 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC).

Attendees: Domestic and internationally recognized small body experts, in both the robotic and human space-flight community, to include but not limited to, small body scientists and related analytical and operational experts, mission designers, systems engineers, mission operations, safety, radiation, etc. Experts across government, academia, industry, and other organizations are encouraged to attend.

Link: Workshop website

Link: Workshop agenda

International Symposium on Asteroid Mitigation and Exploration (ISAME) (04-06 April 2011, College Station, TX USA))

From the conference website...

The International Symposium on Asteroid Mitigation and Exploration, to be held in College Station, Texas, will bring together an international community of researchers and practitioners to discuss new research results, mitigation and exploration strategies, international collaboration, and public awareness. In additional to presentations from attendees, a round table will be held to discuss future international cooperation, public awareness, and public policy statements.

Dr. Simon "Pete" Worden, Director of NASA-Ames Research Center, and Bruce Betts, Director of Projects for The Planetary Society, will likely be giving keynote speeches at the symposium. There may be one other speaker. Stay tuned for updates.

Submission Policy: All papers must be submitted in English and are limited to 15 pages. Papers will be due the day of the presentation.

Link: Conference website

Link: Conference Flyer

13 January 2011

International Space University Summer Session 2010 Student Report: "ASTRA: Asteroid Mining Technologies, Roadmap and Applications"

ASTRA: Asteroid Mining Technologies, Roadmap and Applications
SSP 10 ISU, Strasbourg (France) - Student Report
Originally titled: TP Asteroid Mining

This project is an investigation of issues and solutions related to the mining of asteroids. Its focus is on mapping out the fields of physical science, engineering, life science, policy, business and social impact as they pertain to the overarching goal of establishing a mining infrastructure in space. This study culminates in a roadmap facilitating more specific work on the exploitation of near-Earth resources. Included in this investigation is the identification of what makes an asteroid a preferred candidate for mining, as well as preliminary mission concepts and legal implications. Finally, a study on the economic viability of asteroid mining affords perspective into the development of a business plan to deliver asteroidal materials such that their monetary value is preserved.

Link: Report Page

Link: Executive summary

Link: Full report

Abstract Deadline Extension for 2011 IAA Planetary Defense Conference (Registration Also Available)

From the ESA Conference Bureau helping to organize the 2011 IAA Planetary Defense Conference...

Abstract deadline for the 2011 IAA Planetary Defense Conference (9-12 May, Bucharest, Romania), has been extended to 28 January 2011. Authors are kindly invited to submit their abstracts by using the relevant web link posted on the conference website As of today, it is also possible to register for the conference. The on-line registration form is published on the above mentioned website.

Presentation on Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense to NASA Advisory Council (January 11, 2011)

Final report from the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense to the NASA Advisory Council presented on January 11, 2011 (Co-Chairs of Task Force: Dr. Tom Jones and Mr. Rusty Schweickart). This is essentially a summary of the report developed and finalized last year.

Conclusions from the report:

- NASA has strong foundation for understanding NEO hazard and building a long-term capability to counter NEO impact threat
- NASA has 2 of 3 elements to prevent future damaging impacts: (1) Search, track, warning and (2) deep space ops capability
- Actual technology demos being studied, part of future missions
- Missing 3rd element is international readiness; NASA should lead
- To do so requires NASA to develop practical means of altering NEO orbit
- W/O search/detection of smaller NEOs; orbit alteration; lead global deflection efforts, U.S. can only evacuate & respond post-impact
- NASA should begin now to forge its NEO capacities into global example of how to shield against future impact

Link: Briefing to Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense

12 January 2011

YouTube Video ("Apophis and NEOSSat")

Short video documentary on Apophis and the Canadian in-space small satellite observatory called NEOSSAT. From the video description:

Synopsis: Apophis is the asteroid of the greatest concern to the scientific community because of the high probability it will strike Earth in the year 2036. Projects like NEOSSat look out for Near Earth Objects such as Apophis in order to track their trajectory.

Link: YouTube Video ("Apophis and NEOSSat")

Goldstone Radar Results for Asteroid 2010 JL33

Preliminary Orbit of Asteroid 2010 JL33 on December 11, 2010 (Source: JPL Small-Body Database Browser Orbit Diagram)

New radar imagery for Asteroid 2010 JL33. From the video: While safely passing Earth, NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar captured the rotation of asteroid JL33 -- an irregular, elongated object roughly 1.8 kilometers (1.1) miles wide. The video consists of 36-frames.

Link: YouTube Video ("NASA Radar Reveals Features on Asteroid")

Link: JPL Small-Body Database (2010 JL33))

Agenda of UN COPUOS Scientific and Technical Subcommittee Meeting (February 2011): NEO Related Activity

The provisional agenda for the next meeting of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the United National Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) has been posted. Most NEO related activity will occur from February 14-17, 2011. Specific NEO activities include the following:

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee
Forty-eighth session
Vienna, 7-18 February 2011

Provisional agenda

11. Near-Earth objects

In paragraph 7 of its resolution 65/97, the General Assembly agreed that the Subcommittee should reconvene its Working Group on Near-Earth Objects. The Working Group will continue the work begun during the intersessional period on seeking agreement on the draft international procedures for handling the NearEarth object (NEO) threat and engage international stakeholders, as well as review progress on international cooperation and collaboration on NEO observations and on the capability for the exchange, processing, archiving and dissemination of data for the purpose of detecting NEO threats.

The Subcommittee will have before it a report containing information on research in the field of near-Earth objects carried out by member States, international organizations and other entities (A/AC.105/976) and the interim report of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects (2010-2011) (A/AC.105/C.1/L.308

Link: Agenda (English, PDF)

YouTube Video ("Extraterrestrial Prospecting")

Several presentations from the 2010 Space Studies Institute Conference (29-31 October 2010) on asteroid mining (recorded on 30 October 2010).

- Prof. Michael A'Hearn, University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy
Mining Methods for Asteroid Utilization

- Brad Blair, Space Studies Institute, and Prof. Leslie Gertsch, University of Missouri-Rolla Mining Concepts Development for Accessing Asteroid Resources

- Mark Sonter, Asteroid Enterprises Pty Ltd
Resources from Asteroids: What We Can Expect From What We Know Now

- Dr. Faith Vilas, University of Arizona, Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory

Link: YouTube Video ("Extraterrestrial Prospecting")

11 January 2011

Comet Elenin (C/2010 X1)

Preliminary Orbit of Comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin) on October 14, 2011 (Source: JPL Small-Body Database Browser Orbit Diagram)

From Wikipedia on Comet C/2010 X1...

Comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin) is a long-period comet discovered by Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin on December 10, 2010 at International Scientific Optical Network's robotic observatory near Mayhill, New Mexico, U.S.A. C/2010 X1 has pretty small perihelion distance - about 0.44 AU. This relatively bright comet can reach 8th magnitude on September-October 2011.

From a posting on

From new observations of Comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin), the Minor Planet Center has published new orbital parameters. There has been a fundamental change; instead of a perihelion near Jupiter’s orbit, the comet will have an aphelion at Mercury’s orbit! Of course the new comet does not belong to the class of sungrazing comets, but it will be visible in images from the coronagraph installed on the space observatory SOHO.

C/2010 X1 comes within 0.03 a.u. (4.5 million km) of the Earth’s orbit, but only ~0.4 a.u. from the planet itself – not at all threatening to us.

The comet will increase its brightness; in August of 2011 it will be mag. 6-8. By the end of the month and throughout September the comet will be hidden from earthly observers in the rays of the Sun, but it will be easily visible in images from the cosmic coronagraph. At that time the comet’s brightness will be at maximum – about mag. 3-4 (although with passage so close to the Sun anything can be expected). By the way, at that time the comet will again be at the same equatorial coordinates where it was discovered in December of 2010.

Beginning in October, the comet will again become visible for observations from Earth; at that time its brightness will be magnitude 4-5, i.e. the comet will be visible to the unaided eye far from large cities. Visibility conditions from northern latitudes will be favorable – the tailed guest will climb into the northern sky. After that, C/2010 X1 will slowly become fainter and move away from the Earth. By the beginning of 2012 its brightness will be around mag. 11-12.

Link: Article (C/2010 X1 – A Bright Comet of 2011)

Link: Sky and Telescope Article

Link: JPL Information

Dr. John Lewis on the Space Show (Friday, January 14, 2011 , 9:30-11 AM PST)

The Space Show will have Dr. John S. Lewis on this Friday, 14 January 2011.

Friday, January 14, 2011 , 9:30-11 AM PST: We welcome Dr. John Lewis to the program. John S. Lewis is Professor Emeritus of Planetary Sciences and Co-Director of the Space Engineering Research Center at the University of Arizona. He is a regular commentator on Chinese civil space missions on China Central Television CCTV9, Including the Shenzhou 6 & 7 manned missions and the Chang’e 1 & 2 lunar missions. Dr. Lewis is the author of the best selling book, “Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets, and Planets.”

Link: The Space Show

04 January 2011

2011 Asteroid/Comet Book Update

Updates on new books on the subjects of asteroids, comets, and planetary defense. These works include newly released paperback versions of existing hardcover books. A new paperback version of the "classic" overview text on planetary defense entitled "Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids" will be available around March 2011. There are multiple new hardcover and reissued titles in softcover coming out from Springer. Here are some additional books that are and will be available:

Asteroids and Dwarf Planets and How to Observe Them (Astronomers' Observing Guides) [Paperback]
Roger Dymock (Author)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (November 1, 2010)

Hunting and Imaging Comets (Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series) [Paperback]
Martin Mobberley (Author)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (October 11, 2010)

The Doomsday Lobby: Hype and Panic from Sputniks, Martians, and Marauding Meteors [Paperback]
James T. Bennett (Author)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (September 30, 2010)

Orbital Motion in Strongly Perturbed Environments: Applications to Asteroid and Comet Orbiters (Springer Praxis Books / Astronautical Engineering) [Hardcover]
Daniel J. Scheeres (Author)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (May 3, 2011)

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids [Paperback]
Michael J. S. Belton (Editor), Thomas H. Morgan (Editor), Nalin H. Samarasinha (Editor), Donald K. Yeomans (Editor)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (March 3, 2011)\
Link: Cambridge University

Habitability and Cosmic Catastrophes (Advances in Astrobiology and Biogeophysics) [Paperback]
Arnold Hanslmeier (Author)
Publisher: Springer (December 16, 2010)

Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects [Paperback]
Vitaly Adushkin (Editor), Ivan Nemchinov (Editor)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (November 19, 2010)

Dynamics of Comets and Asteroids and Their Role in Earth History [Paperback]
Shin Yabushita (Editor), Jacques Henrard (Editor)
Publisher: Springer (November 19, 2010)

Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society: An Interdisciplinary Approach [Paperback]
Peter T. Bobrowsky (Editor), Hans Rickman (Editor)
Publisher: Springer; 1st Edition. edition (November 19, 2010)

Meteoritics & Planetary Science: October/November 2010 (Multiple Articles on Asteroid 2008 TC3 and Output Science Results)

The October/November 2010 (Volume 45, Issue 10-11, Pages 1553–1845) issue of the journal Meteoritics & Planetary Science has multiple articles on the recovered asteroid 2008 TC3. A NASA Goddard press release a contains more information on the implications of some of the science results, specifically on finding amino acids in samples of the 2008 TC3 asteroid.

A summary of the recovery of 2008TC3 follows from one of the journal articles:

On October 7, 2008, asteroid 2008 TC3 impacted Earth and fragmented at 37 km altitude above the Nubian Desert in northern Sudan. The area surrounding the asteroid’s approach path was searched, resulting in the first recovery of meteorites from an asteroid observed in space. This was also the first recovery of remains from a fragile “cometary” PE = IIIa/b type fireball. In subsequent searches, over 600 mostly small 0.2–379 g meteorites (named “Almahata Sitta”) with a total mass 10.7 kg were recovered from a 30 × 7 km area. Meteorites fell along the track at 1.3 kg km−1, nearly independent of mass between 1 and 400 g, with a total fallen mass of 39 ± 6 kg. The strewn field was shifted nearly 1.8 km south from the calculated approach path. The influence of winds on the distribution of the meteorites, and on the motion of the dust train, is investigated. The majority of meteorites are ureilites with densities around 2.8 g cm−3, some of an anomalous (porous, high in carbon) polymict ureilite variety with densities as low as 1.5 g cm−3. In addition, an estimated 20–30% (in mass) of recovered meteorites were ordinary, enstatite, and carbonaceous chondrites. Their fresh look and matching distribution of fragments in the strewn field imply that they were part of 2008 TC3. For that reason, they are all referred to as “Almahata Sitta.” No ureilite meteorites were found that still held foreign clasts, suggesting that the asteroid’s clasts were only loosely bound.

Source: The recovery of asteroid 2008 TC3, Muawia H. SHADDAD1, Peter JENNISKENS2,*, Diyaa NUMAN1, Ayman M. KUDODA1, Saadia ELSIR3, Ihab F. RIYAD1, Awad Elkareem ALI4, Mohammed ALAMEEN1, Nada M. ALAMEEN1, Omer EID1, Ahmed T. OSMAN1, Mohamed I. AbuBAKER1, Mohamed YOUSIF1, Steven R. CHESLEY5, Paul W. CHODAS5, Jim ALBERS2, Wayne N. EDWARDS6,7, Peter G. BROWN6, Jacob KUIPER8, Jon M. FRIEDRICH9,10, Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010, Meteoritics & Planetary Science
Volume 45, Issue 10-11, pages 1557–1589, October/November 2010.

Selections from a National Geographic article on some of the research presented in the journal follow:

Hot on the heels of finding arsenic-loving life-forms, NASA astronomers have uncovered amino acids—the fundamental foundation for life—in a place where they shouldn't be.

The acids—precursors of proteins—have been unexpectedly found inside fragments of previously superheated meteorites that landed in northern Sudan in 2008, a new study says.

Amino acids have already been found in a variety of carbon-rich meteorites formed under relatively cool conditions. (See asteroid and comet pictures.)

But this is the first time the substances have been found in meteorites that had been naturally heated to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,100 degrees Celsius). That extreme temperature which should have destroyed any hint of organic material inside, said study leader Daniel Glavin, an astrobiologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

"Previously, we thought the simplest way to make amino acids in an asteroid was at cooler temperatures in the presence of liquid water," Glavin said in a statement. "This meteorite suggests there's another way involving reactions in gases as a very hot asteroid cools down."

The discovery also "provides additional support for the theory that life's ingredients were delivered to the Earth by asteroids," he said.

The meteorites came from a 13-foot-wide (4-meter-wide) parent asteroid that entered an Earth-crossing orbit in 2008.

A collision about 15 million years ago sent the 59-ton asteroid closer to Earth—and provided scientists the first opportunity to observe a celestial object before it entered our atmosphere in October 2008.

During desert treks, scientists later recovered nearly 600 meteorite fragments from the meteor shower.

"Finding evidence for the extraterrestrial amino acids in this meteorite is a big deal," Glavin said, "since we can learn about the chemistry that took place in space prior to the origin of life on Earth."

Likewise, "these meteorites would have contributed to the amino acid inventory of the early Earth and other planets in our solar system, including Mars."

This may mean that organic compounds such as amino acids—delivered via asteroids—may have been much more pervasive throughout the solar system than thought, he said.

Link: Meteoritics & Planetary Science, October/November 2010, Volume 45, Issue 10-11, Pages 1553–1845

Link: NASA Goddard Press Release ("Building Blocks of Life Created in "Impossible" Place")

Link: Article ("Life Ingredients Found in Superhot Meteorites—A First")

Link: Astrobiology Magazine Article ("More than One Way to Make Amino Acids")

Full-Time Employment Opportunity and Full-Time Summer Internship Positions at SpaceWorks Commercial

SpaceWorks Commercial, a division of SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI), and located in Washington, D.C. office has an opening for a Commercial Space Systems Analyst. For more information please see the following or the PDF file (also contains information on our full-time summer student intern position):

Commercial Space Systems Analyst
Position ID: SEI-C1
Experience Level: 0 – 5 years
Type: Full-time, Salaried
Location: Washington, DC
Salary Range: $60,000 - $75,000, depending on qualifications

SpaceWorks Commercial seeks an entry-level space systems analyst to help perform economic and technical analysis for external clients (domestic and international) and for internal initiatives. Familiarity with economic analysis, financial modeling, database development, and aerospace markets is desired. Sample markets that would be analyzed include: small payload orbital launch, sub-orbital/orbital space tourism, commercial remote sensing, commercial telecommunications, commercial transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS), reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), reentry systems, space solar power, propellant depots, high speed global cargo delivery, etc. A degree in business, economics, space policy, aerospace engineering, systems engineering, or a related field is preferred. For this position, please apply directly to

Commercial Space Analysis Intern
Position ID: SEI-C Intern
Experience Level: Undergraduate or Graduate Student
Type: Summer 2011 Semester
Location: Washington, DC
Salary Range: $16/hour - $22/hour, depending on qualifications and academic standing

SpaceWorks Commercial seeks applicants for a summer internship in Washington, DC. The applicant should be, at a minimum, on the path to obtaining a B.A., B.S., M.S., or M.B.A. in engineering, economics/finance, business, or a policy-related field. The successful applicant should be familiar or have an interest in commercial and policy aspects of space development including financing/economic modeling/market forecasting. Candidates should be highly motivated, possess good communication skills, be comfortable with quantitative modeling, and have a passion for space exploration and space economics. Minimum GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale please. U.S. citizenship is preferred for SEI-C internship positions. However, SpaceWorks Commercial is open to hiring foreign national students studying in the U.S. for available full-time internships under the Curricular Practical Training (CPT) program for those with an F-1 student visa. Please note the requirements of each announcement before applying. For those applicants that seek to also obtain academic credit for their internship, SpaceWorks Commercial reserves the right to reduce the hourly salary offered accordingly. Please notify SpaceWorks Commercial when you apply if you will also be seeking academic credit for the internship. Application deadline for applying for this position is March 4, 2011. For this position, please apply directly with an introductory email, cover letter, and current resume to

Please pass this announcement on to any interested parties. Thank you.

Link: SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) Employment Page

Link: SpaceWorks Commercial Hiring Flyer (January 2011)

03 January 2011

Presentation: Near Earth Object Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology

Summary from Haithem A. Altwaijry, Space Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, October, 2010 on their NEO work. Presentation was given at the Saudi International Space and Aeronautics Technology Conference 2010. Rusty Schweickart also had a presentation there.

Summary of KACST research follows:

- 2007 KACST participates with Texas A & M University in developing conceptual designs for a space craft to track the asteroid Apophis.

- 2008 KACST/TAMU team develop design for an Apophisrendezvous and tracking space craft.

- 2009 Establishment of National Lunar and NEO research center at KACST.
Affiliate member with NLSI

- KACST/TAMU work on Asteroid mitigation.
Participation at the International Symposium on Near‐Earth Hazardous Asteroids –Malta.

- 2010 KACST/TAMU develop:
A Mission Template for Exploration and Mitigation of Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Asteroids using the Yarkovskyeffect

Link: Presentation ("Near Earth Object Research atKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology," PDF)

Link: Presentation ("Challenges and Achievements of Space Missions: Protecting the Earth," PDF)

NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee Meeting 11 January 2011: Final Report of the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense

A recent NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee Meeting on 11 January 2011 will contain on its agenda a Final Report of the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense. Federal Register notice follows:

NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee Meeting 11 January 2011
Source: NASA Advisory CouncilPosted Tuesday, December 21, 2010

[Federal Register: December 21, 2010 (Volume 75, Number 244)] [Notices] [Page 80081-80082] From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [] [DOCID:fr21de10-79] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

[Notice: (10-167)]

NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting

AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

ACTION: Notice of meeting.

SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council.

DATES: Tuesday, January 11, 2011, 10:30 a.m.-5:45 p.m., Local Time

ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters, Glennan Conference Room-1Q39; 300 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20546

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Bette Siegel, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters, 300 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20546, 202/358-2245;

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The agenda topics for the meeting will include:

- Status of the Exploration Program.
- Future Planning for Human Exploration.
- Status of the Commercial Crew Initiative.
- Final Report of the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense.

The meeting will be open to the public up to the seating capacity of the room. It is imperative that the meeting be held on these dates to accommodate the scheduling priorities of the key participants. Visitors will need to show a valid government-issued picture identification such as driver's license or passport at the Visitor Center in the West Lobby, and must state they are attending the NASA Advisory Council Exploration Committee meeting in the Glennan Conference Room-1Q39. Further, no later than January 3, 2011, all non- U.S. citizens must submit the following information to Dr. Bette Siegel, Room 7T15, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20546; Fax (202) 358-3091: Name, current address, citizenship, company affiliation (if applicable) to include address, telephone number, and their title, place of birth, date of birth, U.S. visa information to include type, number, and expiration date, U.S. Social Security Number (if applicable), Permanent esident Alien card number and expiration date (if applicable), place and date of entry into the U.S., and passport information to include country of issue, number, and expiration date.

For questions, please call Bette Siegel at (202) 358-2245.

Dated: December 14, 2010. P. Diane Rausch, Advisory Committee Management Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [FR Doc. 2010-31977 Filed 12-20-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7510-13-P

Link: Spaceref
Note: Any opinions expressed on the blog are solely those of the author. The site is not sponsored by, nor does it represent the opinions of, any organization, corporation, or other entity.